Professeur docteur oussama chaalane

Dr Usama Fouad Shaalan Md;PhD

Doctor (title)
Doctor (gen.: doctoris) means teacher in Latin. The word is originally an agentive noun of the verb docēre (‘to teach’).[1] It has been used continuously as an honored academic title for over a millennium in Europe, where it dates back to the rise of the university. This use spread to the Americas, former European colonies, and is now prevalent in most of the world. As a prefix — abbreviated "Dr"— its primary designation is a person who has obtained a doctorate (that is, a doctoral degree), which is the highest rank of academic degree awardable. Doctoral degrees may be "research doctorates", awarded on the basis of competency in research, or "taught doctorates" (also called "professional doctorates", because they are invariably awarded in professional subjects), awarded on the basis of coursework and adjunct requirements (if any) successfully completed by the conferee.
In some languages, when addressing several persons of whom each holds a doctor title, one can use the plural abbreviation Dres. (for Latin ‘doctores’). E.g., instead of Dr. Miller and Dr. Rubinstein: Dres. Miller and Rubinstein.
Doctor as a noun
Throughout most of the academic world, the term "doctor" refers to an individual who earned a degree of Doctor of Philosophy, or Ph.D. (an abbreviation for the Latin Philosophiæ Doctor; or alternatively Doctor philosophiæ, D.Phil., originally from the Greek Διδάκτωρ Φιλοσοφίας, Didaktōr Philosophias, meaning Teacher of Philosophy), or other research doctorates such as the Doctor of Science, or Sc.D. (an abbreviation of the Latin Scientiae Doctor). Beyond academia and in the classical professions, such as medicine and the law, the professional doctorates emerged such as the Doctor of Medicine M.D. (an abbreviation of the Latin Medicinæ Doctor), or Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery MBBS, MBChB, MB, BCh, etc. (an abbreviation of the Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae), and the Juris Doctor or Doctor of Jurisprudence.
The first academic degrees were all law degrees, and the first law degrees were doctorates. The origins of the doctorate dates back to the ijazat attadris wa’l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Islamic Madrasahs that taught Islamic law since the 9th century.[2] The foundations for the first European universities were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law that taught Canon law and Roman law.[3] The first European university, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in Bologna. It is from this history that it is said that the first academic title of doctor applied to scholars of law. The degree and title were not applied to scholars of other disciplines until the 13th century.[4] And at the University of Bologna from its founding in the 12th century until the end of the 20th century the only degree conferred was the doctorate, usually earned after five years of intensive study after secondary school. The rising of the doctor of philosophy to its present level is a modern novelty.[5] At its origins, a doctorate was simply a qualification for a guild—that of teaching law.[6]
The earliest doctoral degrees (theology, law, and medicine) reflected the historical separation of all university study into these three fields. Over time the D.D. has gradually become less common and studies outside theology and medicine have become more common (such studies were then called "philosophy", but are now classified as sciences and humanities – however this usage survives in the degree of Doctor of Philosophy).
The Ph.D. was originally a degree granted by a university to learned individuals who had achieved the approval of their peers and who had demonstrated a long and productive career in the field of philosophy. The appellation of "Doctor" (from Latin: teacher) was usually awarded only when the individual was in middle age. It indicated a life dedicated to learning, to knowledge, and to the spread of knowledge.
The Ph.D. entered widespread use in the 19th century at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin as a degree to be granted to someone who had undertaken original research in the sciences or humanities. From there it spread to the United States, arriving at Yale University in 1861, and then to the United Kingdom in 1921. This displaced the existing Doctor of Philosophy degree in some Universities; for instance, the D.Phil. (higher doctorate in the faculty of philosophy) at the University of St Andrews was discontinued and replaced with the Ph.D. (research doctorate). However, some UK universities such as Oxford and Sussex (and, until recently, York) retain the D.Phil. appellation for their research degrees, as, until recently, did the University of Waikato in New Zealand.
In the US, the Doctor of Science, Sc.D., is an academic research degree that was first conferred in North America by Harvard University in 1872, and is relatively rarer than the Ph.D. However, the Sc.D. degree has long been awarded by leading institutions such as Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University, Washington University in St. Louis, etc. At many of these universities, the academic requirements for the Ph.D. and Sc.D. are identical, and with identical doctoral academic regalia. In effort to standardize doctoral degree conferral at these large research institutions, the Ph.D. has replaced and grandfathered the Sc.D. in certain programs, while the Sc.D. is preserved in parallel to the Ph.D. as the highest conferred research doctorate.
Some ability to carry out original research must be documented by producing a dissertation or thesis, often of substantial length. The degree and title "doctor" is often a prerequisite for permanent (or nearly permanent) employment as a university lecturer or as a researcher in some sciences, though this varies on a regional basis. In others such as engineering or geology, a doctoral degree is considered desirable but not essential for employment.
While most US lawyers and physicians who pursue purely academic and research careers in law and medicine do so after having earned a J.D. or M.D., respectively, these degrees are regarded as professional doctorates because most who earn them pursue careers as working professionals. In more recent times other professional doctorates have emerged such as the EdD (usually held by school administrators), the DBA and the DPA (nearly always earned by prior recipients of the M.B.A. and the M.P.A., who continue to pursue ongoing professional careers in business and public administration) and the DPT (most often awarded to future physical therapy practitioners as an alternative to the usual M.P.T.).
Medical and other health professions
In English-speaking countries, most medical practitioners use the title professionally and socially.
In the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries, those training for the medical profession complete either a 5-6 year course or an accelerated 4-year graduate entry course that leads to the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MBChB, or other similar abbreviation)[7]; the higher postgraduate degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) is reserved for those who can prove a particular distinction on the field, usually through a body of published work or the submission of a dissertation.[8]
In the United States and some other countries, the basic medical qualification is the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), usually completed as an advanced degree following a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree. The American MD degree is the equivalent of the British MBBS (but not necessarily the MBBS in other countries.) qualification. In other health-related disciplines such as physical therapy, podiatry, dentistry, chiropractic medicine, optometry, and veterinary medicine, where the professional doctorate is the degre
e which serves as the ‘entry-level’ degree for practitioners, a similar educational framework exists and leads to a doctoral degree. Such professionals typically use the title ‘Dr’ professionally and socially, although a podiatrist would often be referred to as a "podiatric surgeon" and a dentist a "dental surgeon". In the United States only, the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree is an equivalent degree to M.D. but with several differences in study and training.
Speaking in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom on January 19, 1996, health minister Gerald Malone noted that the title doctor had never been restricted to either medical practitioners or those with doctoral degrees in the UK, commenting that the word was defined by common usage but that the titles "physician, doctor of medicine, licentiate in medicine and surgery, bachelor of medicine, surgeon, general practitioner and apothecary" did have special protection in law.[9]
For many years the UK’s General Dental Council (GDC) regarded the use of the title doctor by dentists as a disciplinary offence, but on November 14, 1995 the GDC ruled that dentists could use the title doctor thenceforth provided that they did not do so to imply that they held qualifications that they did not possess.[10]
In guidance issued by Who’s Who published by A & C Black,[11] it is noted that in the context of the UK, "not all qualified medical [practitioners] hold the [MD] degree" but that "those … who have not taken [it] are addressed as if they had." A & C Black also note that British surgeons – a designation reserved for those who have obtained membership of the Royal College of Surgeons – are addressed as Mr, Mrs or Miss rather than Dr. This custom has been commented on in the British Medical Journal and may stem from the historical origins of the profession.[12]
In German language-speaking countries, the word Doktor always refers to a research doctorate awardee, and is distinct from Arzt, a medical practitioner. An Arzt who holds the Dr. med. degree is addressed as Herr Doktor; an Arzt who does not would simply be Herr. This rule has been weakened recently, and people (e.g. in Austria) refer to medical practitioners as Doktor too.[citation needed]
Legal profession
Generally speaking, the modern practice is for lawyers to avoid use of any title, although formal practice varies across the world.
Historically lawyers in most European countries were addressed with the title of doctor, and countries outside of Europe have generally followed the practice of the European country which had policy influence through "modernization" or "colonialization." The first university degrees, starting with the law school of the University of Bologna (or glossators) in the 11th century, were all law degrees and doctorates.[13] Degrees in other fields did not start until the 13th century, but the doctor continued to be the only degree offered at many of the old universities until the 20th century. Therefore, in many of the southern European countries, including Portugal, Spain and Italy,[14] lawyers have traditionally been addressed as “doctor,” a practice which was transferred to many countries in South America[15] (as well as Macau in China).[16]
The title of doctor has never been used to address lawyers in England or other common law countries (with the exception of the United States). This is because until 1846 lawyers in England were not required to have a university degree and were trained by other attorneys by apprenticeship or in the Inns of Court.[17] When law degrees started to become a requirement for lawyers in England, the degree awarded was the undergraduate LL.B.
Even though most lawyers in the United States do not use any titles, the law degree in that country is the Juris Doctor, a professional doctorate degree,[18] and some J.D. holders in the United States use the title of "Doctor" in professional[19] and academic situations, though this practice would be considered unusual.[20] In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (e.g. Peru, Brazil, Macau, Portugal, Argentina, and Italy),[21] J.D. holders who are attorneys will often use the title of doctor as well.[22]
In many Asian countries, the proper title for a lawyer is simply, “lawyer,” but holders of the Juris Doctor degree are also called "博士" (doctor).[23]
Use of "doctor" as a title of address
Customs for the use of "doctor" and the abbreviation "Dr" vary throughout the world.
United States
Historically in the U.S., only those who held a medical degree M.D., M.B.B.S., D.O., or research doctorate Ph.D., or Sc.D. were entitled to use the title of "doctor" and could prefix their names with "Dr.". However, the use of “doctor” as a title has been expanded to include non-medical or Ph.D. degrees, such as the PharmD or discipline-based research doctorates Ed.D, D.B.A., D.P.A., though typically only in an academic setting.
Dentists, chiropractors, physical therapists, podiatrists, optometrists, audiologists and veterinarians are also addressed as doctors. Pharmacists may be referred to as "doctor" in certain situations, although restrictions apply in some jurisdictions and some situations (e.g., when it would mislead someone to think that they are licensed physician). Dentists and podiatrists may be addressed as "physicians and surgeons of dentistry/podiatry" due to the close similarities of their course work, national Board examinations, and rotations in post-graduate residency to that of the MD or MBBS training, though with the same conditions that they are not attempting to mislead others into believing they are liscensed physicians.
Those with J.D. degrees and honorary doctorates typically do not use the title "doctor" or the prefix "Dr." even though they are entitled to do so in some settings.
In general, anyone with a doctorate degree in the U.S. may use the title, and often do in academic situtations. In medical situations the term is often reserved for MD or DO holders, in order to avoid confusing patients.
United Kingdom and the Commonwealth
In the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and other areas whose cultures were recently linked to the UK, the title Doctor generally applies in both the academic and clinical fields. "Registered medical practitioners" hold the degree of Bachelor of Medicine (usually also with surgery). Cultural conventions exist, clinicians who are Members or Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons are an exception. As a homage to their predecessors, the barber surgeons, they prefer to be addressed as Mr, Mrs, Ms or Miss, even if they do hold a medical degree. When a medical doctor passes the examinations which enable them to become a member of one or more of the Royal Surgical Colleges and become "MRCS", it is customary for them to drop the "Doctor" prefix and take up "Miss", "Mister", or etc. This rule applies to any doctor of any grade who has passed the appropriate exams, and is not the exclusive province of consultant-level surgeons. In recent times, other surgically-orientated specialists, such as gynaecologists, have also adopted the these prefixes. A surgeon who is also a professor is usually known as "Professor" and, similarly, a surgeon who has been ennobled, knighted, created a baronet or appointed a dame uses the corresonding title (Lord, Sir, Dame). Physicians, on the other hand, when they pass their "MRCP" examinations, which enable them to become members of the Royal College of Physicians, do not drop the "Doctor" prefix and remain Doctor, even when they are consultants. In the United Kingdom the status and rank of consultant surgeons with the MRCS, titled "Mister", etc., and consultant physicians with the MRCP, titled "doctor", is identica
l. Surgeons in the USA and elsewhere continue to use the title "doctor", although New Zealand uses the titles of Mr and Doctor, in the same way as the United Kingdom.
The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Ph.D. holders, Grandees and Dukes can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King[24].
Ph.D. Degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 1393/2007)[25], Real Decreto (in Spanish). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Ph.D.s called TESEO [26]. Any person who uses the Spanish title of "Doctor" (or "Dr.") without being included in this Government database can be prosecuted for fraud.
Unlike other countries, Spain registers a comparatively small number of Doctor degree holders. According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programs, and less than 10% of 1st year Ph.D. students are finally granted a Doctor title[27]. This reinforces the prestige that Doctors enjoy in Spain’s society.
Canada lies somewhere between British and American usage of the degree and terminology of "doctor". On one hand all medical practitioners trained in Canada receive the MD degree and are referred to as "Doctor". The British use of "Mr", "Mrs", and so on for surgeons is not followed in Canada. On the other hand, in the legal profession, graduates of almost all Canadian law schools receive the LLB degree and not referred to as "doctor" (in a growing number of Canadian law schools, including the University of Toronto, the degree of Juris Doctor is conferred, but the title is not used in practice). Medicine, Dentistry, and Law (as well as other first professional degree programs) are generally not considered to be graduate education in Canada, but rather a specialized professional undergraduate program. Practitioners in veterinary medicine, optometry and dentistry have doctorate degrees and are very commonly referred to with the title "Dr" preceding the specific name, but not referred to as "a doctor". Practitioners of podiatry and alternative medicine may not be referred to with the "Dr" honorific in relation to providing the public with health care services. In Ontario, only Chiropractors, Dentists, Medical Doctors, Optometrists, Psychologists, and registered Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists can use the title. [28] A registered Naturopathic doctor may only use the title “doctor” in written format if he or she also uses the phrase, "naturopathic doctor", immediately following his or her name. Honorary degrees, usually LLD, are similar to those in the United States. Research doctorates are mostly PhD’s and ScD’s.
In Austria academic titles become part of the name and are therefore added to all personal ID documents. In certain legal transactions, such as land purchases, the person has to sign with the title, even if the person’s usual signature does not include the title (has elected to omit it).
In Germany, all holders of doctorate degrees are appropriately addressed as "Dr X" in all social situations. However, those granted PhDs from other countries may find themselves in legal difficulties if they use the term "Doktor" professionally in Germany.[29]
Double doctorates are indicated in the title by "Dr.Dr." or "DDr." and triple doctorates as "Dr.Dr.Dr." or "DDDr.". More doctorates are indicated by the addition of "mult.", such as "Dr. mult.". Honorary titles are shown with the addition of "hc", which stands for "honoris causa". Example: "Dr. hc. mult."
EU legislation recognises academic qualifications (including higher degrees and doctorates) of all member states. In Germany, a recent federal law (signed by all Cultural and Educational Ministers in accord with the EU law) confirmed the standardisation of qualifications and recognised that non-Germans were also entitled to use the title Doctor if they possessed an equivalent and recognised qualification from an EU member state.[citation needed] Until this Federal Law was introduced, there was no recognised mechanism to prevent administrators in private bodies and civil servants in public-funded bodies (such as universities) from automatically discriminating between the qualifications of people with German doctorates compared to holders of doctorates from an EU member state. The German university bureaucratic practice of using the post-nominal form, "Ph.D." (or equivalent), to distinguish non-German doctorates can be challenged legally as evidence of arbitrary discrimination and prejudice against non-German nationals (academics). All EU citizens are now "legally entitled" to use and be titled (addressed) as "Doctor" or "Dr." in all formal, legal and published communications. For academics with doctorates from non-EU member states, the qualification must be recognised formally ("validated") by the Federal Educational Ministry in Bonn. The recognition process can be done by the employer or employee and may be part of the official bureaucracy for confirming professional status and is dependent on individual bilateral agreements between Germany and other countries.
An example of mutual recognition of Doctor titles among EU countries is the "Bonn Agreement of November 14 1994", signed between Germany and Spain[30].
In Hungary the title of Doctor used to become a part of the name and is added as such to personal ID documents. The use of this practice has been significantly declined in the recent years, although legally it is still possible.
In Italy, all university graduates (after a 3 year course equivalent to a Bachelor degree) receive the title "Dottore"; after earning a second 2-years degree "Dottore Magistrale", and after earning their Ph.D. "Dottore di Ricerca". Therefore, Italians thus address each other and present themselves as "Dott." or Dr. even if not holding what in other countries is considered a doctorate. This phenomenon may have been caused by Italy’s previous lack of a "Ph.D." degree.
The Philippines
In the Philippines, titles and names of occupations usually follow Spanish naming conventions (gender-specific terms). The feminine form of "Doktor" is "Doktora", and is abbreviated usually as "Dra."
In Portugal, after the completion of an undergraduate degree a person is referred to as Doutor (Dr.) – male or Doutora (Dra.) – female.
In British English it is not necessary to indicate a abbreviation with a full stop (period) after the abbreviation, when the last letter of the abbreviation is the same as the unabbreviated word[31], while the opposite holds true in North American English. This means that while the abbreviation of Doctor is usually written as "Dr" in most of the Commonwealth, it is usually written as "Dr." in North America.[32]
Similarly, conventions regarding the punctuation of degree abbreviations vary. In the United Kingdom, it is increasingly common to omit punctuations from abbreviations that are not truncations: while the usual abbreviation of "Esquire" is "Esq.", the usual abbreviation for "Doctor of Philosophy" is "PhD". It is not incorrect to use the fully-punctuated "Ph.D.", though if this pattern is used, it should be used consistently; practice in particular situations may vary, and it is always more elegant to be consistent with a local patterns of usage than to deviate from.
Honorary doctorates
Main article: Honorary degree
An honorary doctorate is a doctoral degree awarded for
service to the institution or the wider community. This service does not need to be academic in nature. Often, the same set of degrees is used for higher doctorates, but they are distinguished as being honoris causa: in comprehensive lists, the lettering used to indicate the possession of a higher doctorate is often adjusted to indicate this, e.g. "Hon. Sc.D.", as opposed to the earned research doctorate "Sc.D.". The degrees of Doctor of the University (D.Univ.) and Doctor of Humane Letters (D.H.L.), however, are only awarded as an honorary degree.
Other uses of "Doctor"
In some regions, such as the Southern United States, "Doctor" is traditionally added to the first name of people (especially men) holding doctorates, where it is used in either direct or indirect familiar address.[citation needed]
"Doc" is a common nickname for someone with a doctoral degree, in real life and in fiction — for example, the character "Doc" in Gunsmoke and Doc Holliday. Also, Doc Savage, ‘Man of Bronze’, a series of young adult pulp fiction paperback books popular among US high school students during the 1960s and 1970s. "Doc" is Marty McFly’s nickname for Doctor Emmett Brown in the Back to the Future trilogy.[citation needed]
In Roman Catholicism and several other Christian denominations, a Doctor of the Church is an eminent theologian (e.g. Thomas Aquinas, also known as the Angelic Doctor) from whose teachings the whole Church is held to have derived great advantage. [33]
1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, v. doctor.
2. ^ Makdisi, G. (1989). “Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175-182
3. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
4. ^ idem
5. ^ Reed, A. (1921). ‘’Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.’’ Boston: Merrymount Press.
6. ^ van Ditzhuyzen, R. (2005). The ‘creatio doctoris’: Diversity or convergence of ceremonial forms? Unknown publisher. Accessed May 26, 2008.
7. ^ British Medical Association. 2007. Becoming a Doctor: Entry in 2008. Accessed May 31, 2008.
8. ^ University of Cambridge. Statutes and Ordinances, chapter 7. Accessed May 31, 2008.
9. ^ Hansard, January 19, 1996. Columns: 1064-1069.
10. ^ "You have called me doctor for ten years.", February 14, 2006.
11. ^ Titles and Forms of Address: A guide to correct use, 21st edition. (2002.) London: A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-6265-4
12. ^ Dobson, Roger. (2005) "English surgeons may at last be about to become doctors". British Medical Journal, 330:1103.
13. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008. García y García, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
14. ^ E.g. Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009.
15. ^ Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009.
16. ^ Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009
17. ^ Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, pp. 430, 432, 434, 436
18. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education. Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients," "InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics" NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education". Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopedia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).
19. ^ American Bar Association. Model Code of Professional Responsibility, Disciplinary Rule 2-102(E). Cornell University Law School, LLI. Accessed February 10, 2009. Peter H. Geraghty. Are There Any Doctors Or Associates In the House?. American Bar Association, 2007.
20. ^ E.g. University of Montana School of Business Administration. Profile of Dr. Michael Harrington. University of Montana, 2006. See also Distance Learning Discussion Forums. New wrinkle in the "Is the JD a doctorate?" debate. Distance Learning Discussion Forums, 2003-2005.
21. ^ E.g. Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009; Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009; and Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009.
22. ^ E.g. Dr. Ronald Charles Wolf. Accessed February 16, 2009. Florida Bar News. Debate over ‘doctor of law’ title continues. Florida Bar Association, July 1, 2006.
23. ^ Google Translate; The Contemporary Chinese Dictionary. (2002). Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, Beijing.; Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (Chinese-English). (2006). Pearson Education, Hong Kong, 2006. Also see The Morrison Foester law firm website, one of the largest law firms in Asia and the United States, for an example of usage.
24. ^ Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta
25. ^ (in Spanish)
26. ^ Base de Datos TESEO
27. ^
28. ^ Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. [1].
29. ^ Craig Whitlock and Shannon Smiley (March 14, 2008). "Non-European PhDs In Germany Find Use Of ‘Doktor’ Verboten". The Washington Post. p. A01.
30. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento
31. ^ Abbreviations
32. ^ Chambers Reference Online
33. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia


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